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United Arab Emirates
Probabilistic calculus emerged in the 17th century as a mathematical form for describing numerically uncertain future events. Originally it was mainly used to measure chances in winning games of cards and dice.

The correspondence between Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal in 1654 for example, often seen as the birth of modern probability theory, typically refers to a game situation. The authors devised a mathematical method to answer the "problem of points," first recorded by Luca Pacioli in 1494, which consisted in finding the fair division of stakes for a sequence of games broken up before the ultimate winner was known.

The correspondence between Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal in 1654 for example, often seen as the birth of modern probability theory, typically refers to a game situation. The authors devised a mathematical method to answer the "problem of points," first recorded by Luca Pacioli in 1494, which consisted in finding the fair division of stakes for a sequence of games broken up before the ultimate winner was known.